100 photos of applications in landscape design and selection of materials
The name «gabion» came to us from the Italian language. Literally translated, the word «gabbia» means «cell». Gabions are three-dimensional structures made of a metal mesh filled with stone. Their history begins in the 17th century. Initially, they were boxes made of vines, inside of which earth and cobblestones were poured.
Such a self-made redoubt protected the soldiers from enemy bullets and shells. In the twentieth century, builders noticed the product and adapted it to strengthen the banks of rivers.
Currently, gabions are known as a decorative element in the arrangement of a suburban area.
Brief content of the article:
Gabions in landscape design are an example of an inexpensive yet stylish means of expression. With their help, you can realize the most daring ideas. Designers have developed a lot of options for landscaping areas with gabion structures.
Check out a few ideas:
Site zoning. Due to its mobility and flexibility, the mesh frame can be shaped into various shapes. A high gabion in the form of a curb is a proven technique for dividing a common backyard space into separate functional areas.
Strengthening the slopes of the reservoir from erosion. Relevant for owners of farms near rivers, lakes, as well as for those who have their own decorative pond. Under the influence of wind and water, the soil is gradually destroyed.
Gabions installed along the perimeter of the reservoir will help prevent erosion of coastal soil. To prevent the structure from falling apart, each block is connected to the previous one with a wire. A ladder adjacent to a water source can also be made using gabions.
Gabion fence. If a lot of waste has accumulated during construction work (broken brick, stone or concrete crumbs), you should not get rid of them. Use them as hedge filler.
The advantage of such a fence is a long service life, environmental friendliness, ease of installation. For greater aesthetics, climbing plants are planted in the space between the stones.
Design of green spaces. From the gabion, you can build a stand for flower pots or a flower bed. Stones perfectly emphasize the fragility and tenderness of plants.
Figures and architectural elements. Gabion cells are a good basis for garden benches, countertops, barbecues and hearths, walls of arbors.
The photo selection of gabions below shows ready-made design solutions.
Gabions: types and materials
In appearance, gabion structures are classified into 3 types:
Box-shaped gabions (another name is «Jumbo») are made in the form of a container with a width of 1-2 m, a height of 0.5-1 m. The length of the product is from 2 to 6 m. from each other at a distance of up to 1 m. Scope of use — retaining, delimiting elements, fences.
Gabions «Reno» mattress type are structurally similar to box-shaped. Still the same rectangular shape, but flatter and more modest in size. The height of the element does not exceed 30 cm. Several hundred years ago, these structures saved the inhabitants.
Bologna from flooding, for which they received a second name in honor of the river of the same name. To this day, they are used for facing slopes and dams.
A cylindrical gabion looks like a hollow mesh frame with a cross section of up to 0.95 m and a length of 2-4 m. It is produced by stitching from a roll. For stuffing, leave a hole at 1 end (bag-like variety) or a window along the side of the cylinder.
The main details of any type of products are metal mesh and filler. The mesh for gabions must be strong, because its main task is to maintain the integrity of the entire structure.
The fulfillment of this requirement is ensured by the use of steel wire with a diameter of 2-8 mm. Anti-corrosion zinc or PVC coating must be applied to the surface.
According to the mesh manufacturing technology used, all frames are divided into welded or woven by the double torsion method. Welded gabions have rectangular or square cells formed by bars tacked for welding at the intersections.
Their main advantage is reliability, less deformation. Devices with interwoven wire can withstand less stress. Visually, they can be recognized by the hexagonal cells resembling a honeycomb.
When choosing stones for gabions, consider the functional purpose of the structure. For reinforcing frames, hard rocks are needed — granite, concrete.
If it is supposed to decorate the site, then glass fragments, wooden cuts, tiles, cones will be a suitable material. In any case, the filler should be 30-40% larger than the cell size. And when operating a gabion under water, the difference should be at least 50%.
A little trick that will save the budget from significant expenses: lay out the visible front parts of the gabion with stone, and fill the core with sand. This will reduce the installation cost by several times.
To reduce the time of work, you can buy ready-made gabion structures. But in some cases they do not fit in size. The output will be the hand-made design of metal frames.
First you need to stock up on tools and materials, including:
- Metal grid;
- Staples or spirals of wire for fastening adjacent walls of the box;
- Steel pins for fixing the gabion in the soil;
- Braces for screeding the sides of the structure;
- Pliers, mount, protective gloves for hands.
All consumables are purchased with a margin of 10-15%. Before installation, the presence of everything necessary according to the list is checked. The absence of even one thing can cause a slowdown in installation. For welded gabions, you will additionally need a welding machine and accessories for it.
Step-by-step instructions for creating gabions
The territory where the object will be installed is measured. A diagram or drawing is drawn up with the main dimensions of the structure.
A site for a gabion is being prepared. If necessary, the soil is cleared of vegetation, leveled and rammed. To prevent the structure from overgrowing with grass, you can put geotextiles or black film under it.
The metal mesh is cut according to the drawing. For a boxed product, the following parts should be obtained: a bottom, 4 side panels and a lid.
Each part of the frame is assembled together with a spiral wire or staples. At this stage, one of the sides must be open to fill the box with stones. For rigidity, the structure can be reinforced with mesh partitions.
Installation of the gabion into the ground is carried out with the help of pins, anchors, stakes, which are attached to the box with clamps or hardware.
The box is filled with stones up to half. The largest of them are laid out on the bottom and front facades, smaller fillers are placed in the middle. To prevent small things from waking up through the gaps of large stones, geofabric is used. Opposite sides are pulled together with special cables — braces. They are passed through every 4-5 cells of the grid and serve to prevent deformation of the box. After that, the gabion is completely filled.
The last step is to mount the cover and fix it to the walls with wire or staples.
The use of gabion structures is justified in terms of creating a unique relief on the site. Thanks to these simple devices, you can get hills or hollows, arrange flower beds. Gabion is not exacting in leaving. Every year it becomes only stronger, because. soil fills all the cracks and voids.
Photo of gabions
Save the article to your page:
Post published: 09.10
Join the discussion: